Clinical Trials

Nicolodi, C., et al., Safety and immunogenicity of a replication-deficient H5N1 influenza virus vaccine lacking NS1. Vaccine. 2019. 37(28): 3722-3729.

Morokutti, A., et al., Intranasal vaccination with a replication-deficient influenza virus induces heterosubtypic neutralising mucosal IgA antibodies in humans. Vaccine. 2014. 32(17): 1897-1900.

Mössler, C., et al., Phase I/II trial of a replication-deficient trivalent influenza virus vaccine lacking NS1. Vaccine. 2013. 31(52)6194-6200.

Wacheck, V., et al., A novel type of influenza vaccine: safety and immunogenicity of replication-deficient influenza virus created by deletion of the interferon antagonist NS1. J Infect Dis. 2010. 201(3): 354-362.


Preclinical Development

Ferko, B., et al., Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of replication-deficient influenza A viruses with altered NS1 genes. J Virol. 2004. 78(23): 13037-13045.

Krenn, B., et al., Single HA2 mutation increases the infectivity and immunogenicity of a live attenuated H5N1 intranasal influenza vaccine candidate lacking NS1. PLOS ONE. 2011. 6(4): e18577.

Romanova, J., et al., Preclinical evaluation of a replication-deficient intranasal ΔNS1H5N1 influenza vaccine. PLOS ONE. 2009. 4(6): e5984.

Wressnigg, N.,et al., Development of a live-attenuated influenza B ΔNS1intranasal vaccine candidate. Vaccine 2009. 27: 2851-2857.


Nonstructural Protein 1 (NS1)

Hai, R., et al., Influenza B virus NS1-truncated mutants: live-attenuated vaccine approach. J Virol. 2008. 82(21):10580-90.

Hale, B.G., et al., The multifunctional NS1 protein of influenza A viruses. J Gen Virol. 2008. 89(10):2359-76.

Baskin, C.R., et al., Functional genomic and serological analysis of the protective immune response resulting from vaccination of macaques with an NS1-truncated influenza virus. J Virol. 2007. 81(21):11817-27.

Vincent, A.L., et al., Efficacy of intranasal administration of a truncated NS1 modified live influenza virus vaccine in swine. Vaccine. 2007. 25(47):7999-8009.

Fernandez-Sesma, A., et al., Influenza virus evades innate and adaptive immunity via the NS1 protein. J Virol. 2006. 80(13):6295-304.

Richt, J.A., et al., Vaccination of pigs against swine influenza viruses by using an NS1-truncated modified live-virus vaccine. J Virol. 2006. 80(22):11009-18.

Quinlivan, M., et al., Attenuation of equine influenza viruses through truncations of the NS1 protein. J Virol. 2005. 79(13):8431-9.

Solorzano, A., et al., Mutations in the NS1 protein of swine influenza virus impair anti-interferon activity and confer attenuation in pigs. J Virol. 2005. 79(12):7535-43.

Talon, J., et al., Influenza A and B viruses expressing altered NS1 proteins: a vaccine approach. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2000. 97(8):4309-14.


Reverse Genetics

Legastelois, I., et al., Preparation of genetically engineered A/H5N1 and A/H7N1 pandemic vaccine viruses by reverse genetics in a mixture of Vero and chicken embryo cells. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses. 2007. 1(3):95-104.



Liebowitz, D. and B. Lu, Making improvements in influenza vaccines: incremental change or transformational evolution? Future Virol. 2009. 4(2): 133-141.

Garcia-Sastre, A. and R.J. Whitley, Lessons learned from reconstructing the 1918 influenza pandemic. J Infect Dis. 2006. 194 Suppl 2:S127-32.

Palese, P., Making better influenza virus vaccines? Emerg Infect Dis. 2006. 12(1):61-5.

Palese, P. and A. Garcia-Sastre, Influenza vaccines: present and future. J Clin Invest. 2002. 110(1):9-13.